Iolantry Silver Fox (Twelve House Combine Book 1)

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And they come with a promise: Any time one breaks or fails for any reason. AntennasWest will repair or replace it free. The Orab-NiGo Adventurer versian of the antenna has two sections that mate without soldering or tools required.

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Whcn 66 ft long. When ft long. If your eyes are sharp you can spot the TlgerTall'" in the photo above. It puts extra growl mto the signal from the Hand Transc eiver it's attached to. You can use low power and save your battery pack, but still have a big signal. Better than an amplifier, it improves reception too. TigerTaiP does all this by si mply slipping under your flex antenna and just hanging down. It doesn't stick up or out or get in the way. The code generator will send random words contin uously and they will scroll across the screen. You won't be able 10 write the words and check them, but if yoo want to learn to copy in your head this will g ive you good traini ng.

The third menu is the cha racte r menu. It is only d isplayed if you select the CHRS mode.

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When it is first displayed, you will see all the possible characters. To select just some o f the characters, use your paddles to "erase" the characters you do not want 10 copy, and leave the ones you do want to practi ce. When you are ready to copy random cede, the code will be se nt and displayed on the LCD screen. When the screen is full, the Tutor will stop and let you compare your copy with what was sent. To send anothe r set of 80 random characters. Instead, it will fill up the 80 characters on the: sc reen and stop.

This feature is es pecially useful if you are copying code with pencil and paper, because it lets you concentrate on copying, and after 80 characters you can chec k. This mode is also helpful when you are practicing your send ing. Constant Tuning and Sidetone This mode will let you send a continuous tone 10 the transmitter, and a sidetone signal. You can use this mode to tune your antenna or to change the frequency of the sidetone oscillator.

The sidetone frequency can be set from Hz to Hz. The Clock Mode The clock mode di splays the time, date C. MT Fax: can", wm. In this mode. When the alarm is activated. This message can be up to 15 characters in length. If you do not have a message in memory. Obtaining the Parts Except fo r the and PC board, all parts arc availab le from catalog parts suppliers like Digi-Key. Mo user, JOR, etc. Florida residents add sales tax please. An inch shorter man a pack of cigarcrtcs. L -un high integration MPV with une megabyte address space. A real pt twerhouse. So easy to learn!

Type Help and a command name or part 01 a command name and receive the correct spe lling, shortest uhbreviation. Terminal programs for both DOS and Windowstv included. Personal Message System with all the state-of-the-art features. RJ-4S radiocablehas real wire - solders easily to radio connectors. Command listing, power cord included.

Mating OPS receiver. Hespcrides St. Please rate each feature or column as Great. Sine and TIL e Dip switch or parallel bus controlled. DOSJ Pc. DDS-1 C. S89 kit only 1 Hz to khz, in 1 Hz stegs, sine only. Dip switch cantrall of discrete DDS. Call, Write. Fl;f" I arger c. Send 'flu onwlo Publisl'ting. VSWR 1. This may be just the project for you! Using ordi nary hand tools. What does all rhis gai n stuff mean really?

An electronic am plifie r bas an absolute li mit to the amount of power it can produce. Accordingly, amplifiers are ofte n rated in watts-an absolu te term Anten nas on the other hand, have no maximum theoretical o utput pow,,-what you get ou t of them depends o n what you put into them. Enter the decibe l db. Origi na lly established 10 express changes in sound levels. A change of I d B in power leyi. Thus, an antenna with a ga in of 3 db will have the same effect on your signal strength as if you had doubled output power. As an added bonus. According to the fi rst law of thermodynamics [conservation of energy.

In the case of a beam. An omnidirectional antenna. Look at it this way: An omni antenna has a radiation pattern shaped like a doughnut. In order 10 Increase its gain. G ain mu st he expressed in relation to some standard fur it 10 have any meaning. In anten na work. See this secnon ofthe text. Output Voltage adjustable from volts Current limit adjustable trom 1.

Since an isotropic rad iator is a purely theoretical anten na. There is no way of telli ng wh ether the purported gain is mer a d ipole. It' s wise 10 take ad ve rtised claims w ith a grain of salt. From Dipole to Deluxe An assortment of al uminiu m and hardware can double your effective rad iated po wer. Here's how. A s you proba b ly k now. Th is is where the current is highest and the vonage is lowest. AI the ends o r the half-wave antenna just the opposite situation e xists- the current is lowest. Some son of matching device must he used in order to overcome the impedance mismatch jf an antenna is to be end-fed, The quarter-wave closed stub.

Think of it as a dipole folded in half. The impedance is very low 'II the closed end of the marchi ng stub center of the dipole. Connect the antenna In the open end and the feedlinc near the closed end Figure I A. The impedance can no w be changed h ' simply moving the feed point up or down the stub. As an added ad vantage.

Th is is because the curre nts along each element arc out of phase and cancel each other out Figure IB. In order to achieve thi s phasing, the signal must travel an extra ha lf wavelength before arriving at the second element. Th e phasing sruh is a hal f RF currents alo ng the stub arc then equal in intensity but opposite in polarity. Antenna gain is further boosted 10 3 dbd by increasing the spacing between clements.

The added length of a ntenna is o ut o f phase. Fu rther lengtheni ng o f the cle me nt s wi ll cause more cancellation. The fin ished antenna is sho wn in Figure IE. Construetton Figure 2 illustrates Ihe dimensions and layo u t o f the a nte nn a. Thi s wil l allow the tubing to clamp fi rmly aro und the insulator, Next, drill th e mount ing holes in the matching stub and lower clement. Thi s will keep them lined up while dri lling the mounting holes. Clamp the assembly in a vise bei ng careful no t to crush the tubing j and drill through both pieces at the same ti me.

The insulator is a plastic or Fiberglas rod obtai nable at p lastics supply house s or wooden dowel waterproofed w ith e ithe r urethane or spar varni sh, T he insulator should he at least 9" long to pro vide good mechanical sup port between the two radiating elements and should be o f a diameter rhut provides a snug fit ins ide the tubing.

Next, drill a ph asing stub mounting hole in each element. The holes must be parallel and spaced z" apart. The phasing stu b is made from a 22 " length of th readed rod. J Bih liography - - "- - ". Stainle ss stee l hose cl amps are used 10 con nect the coax to the matching stub. Construction details. Thi s antenna delivers go od performance and has a respectable SW R curve over the entire 2 meter hand. Tuning is accomplished by sliding the feed point where the coax is clamped to the antenna either up or down 10 secure the best match. Rich ard A.. Fiberglas or woooen dowel.

The FX is ilitil lor si'iad. Order 0Jf Ini. Needs on ly walls of enve for filii outp ut. AM or CW operahon. ShC: pnee. BDlh II. SX 20 is the llarld mike,.. IuIJ wi'ect. RIll'lse, and R. J ""'nd,l lllt..? Fu all R. FuIJ a. Can 'e ce;yo. RF gilin control. For the ca'. Two s. EAAl I,l ". Get Iongw. I na knclil set9"m! Ixcit,ng al. T,ansmil l ' stabl. Detllled li'iif'wi jifoiiide5 heljl M " '" to el;jllcl Latesl: dmigrl lee!

IncllXles free lunirlg tool too! Two sets or S MT parts supplied IId WIlh, lull To eompafe mode rn scmlconduetor detecto,s Rl dic lor I. RUllI G'l 9V banery. Great for I i. CAR COo'rCllete wiitl. RF sensed T-R.. VOX switches. IUdio alarms. Ill' pelk eapacl! OllCk dwge """'" br1ngi badery 10 lui charge" less Duil o:oouia -,a. ON I Dr. Ni-Cad coodrtiolle. Any idea what the initia ls "SGC" stand for? II you are an old-lime ham or you got your start in amateur radio from Class 0 Citizen s Band, you will re cognize the name "Stoner" sta nding for the letter "5," and "Goral" standing for the "G: in SGC.

Don Stoner W6TNX pionee red premiumqual ity sse CB transceivers in me earty da ys of Class 0 Citizens Banet and Don's technical expertise in communicatio ns certainly owes him a spot in Who's Who whe n it comes to state-of-the-art radio designs. Don is now retired and living in Ronda, and continues to take an active part in commercial and amateur radio technology, Pierre Goral KI7UA, an active amateur operator, was the technical driving force behind SGC's d ev elopment 01 made-in-the-usa communications products for the military.

The SG automatic antenna tuner also called an automatic antenna coupler came out at about the same time Stephen Engineering Corporation ca me out with the S EA antenna coupler, Hull Engineering introd uced a marine Model But SEA and SGC were unique in the fact that the ir own couplers did not require a data line from a specific transceiver to switc h th e uni t into a cti ve tuning and then lock it on tune for a specif ic frequency.

Here at the Gordon West Radio School. When Pierre at SGC saw the potential of the SG tuner l or not only marine but also land applications, he was quick to establish ama teur radio distribution. He now indicates that land and mobile use of the SG is equal to th e use of this tuner for many Photo A. The SGC 5G longwire runer. SSB marine radio with these antenna tuning units will continue as the 'inte rcom band' among mariners, but we see some boats going exclusively with satellite communications, whe re it might be actually easier to call the Coas t Guard on satellite distress frequencies than to rety on Mother Nature for ionospheric skip calls," adds Alber.

Automatic Tuners-Big Differences High frequency ama teur radio SSB transceivers which cover meters through 10 meters may indeed offer a built-in, microprocessor-controlled automatic antenna tuner Amateur Radio Today June. A TA-7S Anl roo. DfH 30iT, DJ. Off', COM u,t. TAO CO KAU I'I. For the best buys in town call: Los Preclo. Export orders expedited. GP, Ml20, GM GR reoeeters. OlU H. T, ICOM. Sho rtwave Radio. UTC Long-range Wireless telephone for overseas. CAll Telephone Autop;lli:! Oreal for making and receiving phone c:alis whefe Ihefe are no phone lines.

Wfile or fax lor inquires. TCS- Ultrallte Ullima. Fils in suitcase Mil, SId. Save money on batter ies. Ask for Special Prices.

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Barry's supplies all MFJ products Call us direct. Cove'c,aH 'Coa. Sf,tunlay SlIm lsuoday 11 ::? Palomar, AF Products, Shure. SCatv'l9l'S Radio Publications. ShlDped Immedlatel,. These relays switch in various values of inductance and capacitance to resonate the tuner, The amateur radio buill-in ATU antenna luner unit outputs its capability 10 the standard SQ.

And it's at the back 01 your transceiver thai the ham HF set with a bu ilt-in tuner creates, most 01the time, the feed point 01 your signal. This means the tuning process takes place right et the ham set, and what comes out 01 the back 01 the ham set is actively tuned coax up 10 your antenna system on the roof or on the side of your pow er boat, or on the stern of your sailboat, or on the top of your motor home. The built-in HF automatic antenna tuner is specifically designed for resonant antenna systems. The built-in HF antenna tuner works superbly in fine-luning beam a ntennas, m ultiband dipoles.

Sri T I. Anttnnl Lcnl'lh 01 a ron-resonant tongwi re, and back down the coax and onto the chassis of the equipm ent. U ltim atel y, the RF gets into the transceive r, and zap.. So use your buill-in automa tic HF antenna tuner lor the purpose it was designed lor-reducing slightly elevated SWRs when operating outside of the natural resonance of the antenna by a l ew hundred kilohertz.

Even though the tuner may have locked onto a low SWR point on your antenna and coax system, you could be tuning up the outside chassis of you r equipment and the braid 01 the coax as part 01the entire antenna system at your shack. And you might even be gelling out on the airwaves-but chances are that the longwi re is not getting all 01 the power thai it could receive from an external antenna tuner spec ifically designed for longwire applications.

The SGC automatic antenna tuner is specifically designed tor remot e mounting away from your HF amateur transceiver, In a boat, the automa tic tuner goes back aft in a sailboat mooring line locke r called the lazarette , or up 00 the tlying bridge und erside to feed a non-resonant white Fiberglas whip. In mobile homes, hams have found that the SGC tuner should go in the back, up high. He points out thai shortwires are only recommended when there is no other enemaoff 01the natural resonant point.

The buill-in HF antenna tuner is not designed 10 tune random wire antennas or nonresonant dipoles, and will rarely offer tuning capabilities to the typical marine installation 01 insulated random-wire backstays or nonresonant SSB Whip antennas. In fact. J "'H,. S ft MHa; so fi. Photo D. Sra tus LEOs on the inside of the tuner confirm that everything is working properly. Photo C. The SGC coupler is microp rocessor-dri ven. With the Wcfax Explorer, simply connect an antenna and a few mouse clicks taler you' re receiving the highest quality images possible.

The Explorer is backed by a 1 year limited warranty and the extensive ex perience of the leading Wefax hardware manufacturer.

lovin you Manual

Quorum equipment is used by virtually all wcfax suppliers in worldwide amateur, commercial and mili tary systems. Suite M This puts the tuner into a big metal box that hangs on the side 01 a vehicle, and the whip from SGC Model protrudes out of the mount and stancls about nine leet tall. It's a relatively good-pertorming system, but only an amateur operator could appreciate what it looks like on the side of a new car.

Photo E. The waterproof housing uses a gooey rubber gasket to seal out rain. Part of the overall antenna system is the ground that is brought up to the base of the tuner, and for marine installations this is usually accomplished with low-inductance copper foil. In home installations and offices, th e ground must be attached to chicken wire holding on stucco. In airplanes, irs the fuselage. Out on Field Day. In other wo rds. Not only does this minimize splash-back by the outgoing RF, but it also keeps your equipment from sounding distorted when high SWR on the line from buill-in automatic tuners creeps into yow microphone circuit.

Won't happen with the SG 23O-it creates a SO-ohm match at the feed point, and this leis the coax run "cok r' Irom your Iig to the remote-mounted tuner. The factory only puts on 10 feet 01 coax with the toner, and this is truly too sho rt for most home, office, field, o r marine installations. You will need to add additional coax. I recommend using a barrei connection and RG to extend the coax line. Below 30 MH z, this connection kept bone dry won't amount to any significant d B loss.

You are probably thi nking it would be better to run the RG directly into the tune r box to replace what's already provided, but if you try that, you break the weather-tight seal on the tuner, and yeo then quickly find out that it's a hard-wire connection that would be difficult to accomplish east Iy with bigger coax. Use the coax jumper and weatherproof the connection point, and save yourself from grief! The four-conductor line that is part of the original SGC coax assembly has a red and black wire for 12 vohs. Sixteen-gauge is fine as an extension because Ihe tuner only coo- somes about milliamps during active tuning.

The actual curren t will vary slightly, because the microp rocessor may have few, some. I don't think I have ever seen an SGC pull more than 1 amp. The other two white wires with color tracers are for an accessory ' in-tune" LED, as well as an accessory tune lock capability designed primarily for mobile installations. The remot e -tu ned indica to r line goes lo w to gro und when the SG is tu ned. This means you hang a diode off of the red wire to the white wire with a black tracer, to illuminate when the tuner has found an optimum tuning. I don't use the LED-!

The othe r white wire with a red tracer is lor an accessory -s martt ock' con troller that is sometimes necessa ry to keep t he tun er locked on when tuning a ron-resonant whip in a mobile installation. On lower ham bands. But since we don't recommend a short antenna being remotely tuned with this tuner lor mobile installations, you won't need to worry about this extra wire.

Indeed, SGC makes this tuner for mobile units, but YOU'll get "zip" pertormance iltrying to tune a stainless steel mobile whip with the tuner in your trunk. You would do better to run pre-tuned whips and keep the tu ner out of line. The noer is not designed lor tuning anything normally fed with coax cable.

Irying to run coax 00 the tuner output will lead to a no-tune situation because of the high ca- Typ ical Installations To calculate how mueh coax ancl two-conduetor power lead you might need. Tuner back aft in a sailboat.

Material Information

You will need about 15 feel of GT high-voltage single wire with plastic insulation to feed the output of the insulated portion of the backstay Home mstanaron with a tuner in the attic: This could be 20 feet to 75 teet away and up. Plastic-coated, stranded copper wire is the radiator, typically run along the horizontal beam in an allic.

The luner is mounted to the side 01the house wall. Tuner mounted on top of an ind ustria l builcling-up to feet away using Beldenstyle coax for the extra loog run: Use 14 gauge for the extra long power run. Single wire 60 to teet long runs in the clear on the top of the roof. AC PA, W. Spacenet 3, Transponder 9, 6. The auto tuner OMS-mounted on an off-the-road vehicle. The tuner grounds to metal flashing 00 the roof, or to anything "major metal" on the top of the roof.

Tuner mounted on metal ham radio tower: Short braid grounds the tuner to the tower as a counterpoise. The Iongwire from the tower goes over to a big tree 60 feet away, and then goes to other growing things on your property. Use insulated wire. You wouldn't think of running it o ver to yo ur neighbor 's tree, would you? An installation cnanenqe-ceo ground on top ot a wood office building: No problemrun 6 to 8 turns around the office with 16 gauge or larger wire.

Start with the high-voltage antenna ou tput, and terminate to the tuner's own ground. This loop antenna represents a DC short circuit, but works great on HF. It has very low noise. Make sure the radio is well grounded to keep the mike tram biting you. Rec reational vehicl e, tu ner mounted up high along the roof line: Plastic-coated wire on inc h PVC standoffs run a round the Fiberglas roof. The tuner grounds to a metal chassis with foil or braid. For metal-roofed mobile homes, try this and see how it works.

You may do better to take the longwire and throw it over a nearby tree when you're out camping. Using the automatic tuner like a dipole: Use random-length wire going one way from the antenna post, and random-length wire coming off the ground post going in the opposite direction. Make s ure the radio is well grounded in this instauatioo. Tuning up a flagpole set in conc rete: It you can find or initiate an installation where the aluminum flagpole is isolated from the metal structures inside the concrete, all the better.

The tuner hides at the base. Single wire goes to the flagpole, and foil attaches to a suitable ground plane in the concrete. For saters, insulate the metal portion of the flagpole where anyone might to uch it accidentally, or dogs could water it. Fly Old Glory with a nylon pulley, and be patriotic while working HF, In the SGC tuner manual, they give additional tips on how to run the automatic coupler lor interesting results. Experiment, experiment, experiment!

How It Works When you apply 12 volts DC, the insides of the antenna tuner snap to attention with an aud ible click. The tuner uses super. Everyone worries that the relays will go bad in the marine environment, but their qold -ptated contacts and their operation have proven reliable, with relay failure being almost zero on the technician fix-it reports. The tuner receives its command 10 beg in the tune-up process by your simply speaking into the microphone on your SSB transceiver without the need to push any transceiver buttons, or the need to switc h to CW or AM.

Do it on the highest frequency desired, and then the lowest frequency desired, and listen for a clattering of the pc-mounteo relays. The computer inside the tuner uses me spoken word to detect power across six capacitors in shunt 00 the input arm 01 the network, arranged in binary increments; eight inductors in the serie s arm, arranged in binary cerements: and live more capacitors in shunt on the output arm.

Relays are provided in conjunct ion with each lumped constant and allow removal or entry as desired, A network having 64 values of input shunt C, 32 varues 01output shunt C, and up to values 01se ries L is possible with the internal 26 relays C lor capacitance, and L lor inductance. A lune-up algorithm which is contained in the memory 01 me computer system insi de the SGC actually implements the ante nna matching.

The tuner monitors me status 01 the input sensors and, starting from a preset condition baseline, manipulates the RF elemen ts L and C through its control algorithm, resulting in a correctly tuned condition. When tuned, your radio sees 50 ohms, for maximum power output. The typical tune process takes about 20 milliseconds once the tuner has recoqruzed a specific length 01antenna wire and a suitable ground. II the wire and ground system remain unchanged, the tuner won't go through the one- or two-second ' clatter" search.

Whether you view power output 00 your nansceiver as colored LEOs, or as a meter movement, there is no mistaking that the tuner is radiating the Signal and giving your set a thumbs-up ohm load. For shortwave liste ning on the general coverage high Irequency band, you can tune the tuner to the 30 meter ham band and enjoy great reception from 4 MHz to 18 MHz, going through the pre-nm ec senings. If you want to bypass the tuner settings, simply remove the 12 volts, then turn it back on, and the tuning elements remain out 01 the circuit unti l the tuner is activated by your transmit signal Amateur Radio Today.

June, Unless you're operating in a frequency-ho pping scheme, use tne t uner straight out of the box as it comes from Ihe factory. And how well does it work? Aboard boats, better than mobile whips on a stai nless steel rail in establishing contacts beyond 2, miles. Within 2, miles, bolh mobile whips and the tuner work fabulously.

In most home instahatlons and office buildings. Just be sure to keep! For home installations, watch out lor TVI, too.

Training with Silver Fox Part 2: Rolling

Since the wire is so long and so hot with RF, it can easily get into home electronics when ir s draped over a roof line. Wililhe Iongwire work better than a beam? Maybe lor close-in, high-angle rectation contacts, but nothing beals a beam. Will it worx better than a roof-mounled trap verncal? Very comparable, but without the sight 01 a big, tall vertical on the root. Will it work mobite with an extreme ly short CEHype whip? For mobile applications, SGC has a special model and a special whip. Easily reached by phone, with immediate fo llow-up always.

Infinitely sol I don't need to teu you whars inside those passive antenna. Ask the X ray mactnoe at osn Out here in Southern ceurorrae where antenna restrictions are common in new nousing developments, the SGC automatic antenna coupler is an effective way of puning out a powerful signal from an antema system that will go umoticed by your neighbofs. No other repe aters or con trollers m atc h Mark 4 in capability and features.

T h at's w h y Mark 4 is the p e rformance le ad e r a t amate u r and commercia l re p eater sites arou nd t he worl d. O n l y M ark 4 give s you Message Masten Unlike others, Mark 4 e ven includ es p o wer su p p ly an d a hand so m e c abinet. Create messag es just by talking. Speak any phrases or words in any lang uages or dialect and your own voice is stored instantly in so lid-state memory. Perfect for emergen cy wa rnings, c lub news bu lletins, and OX alerts. Create unique 10 and tail messages, and the ultimate in a real speech user mailbox - only with a Mark 4.

Ca ll o r write fo r specifications on the repe ate r, c ontroller. Have you ever had the perfect ham accessory and then lost it somehow, never to find it again? I think that eacn of us has, at some time, had the most wondertul ham-related item and then sold it, traded it, or broke it, losing it loreve r. In my ca se, the perf ect CW keyer crossed my path about 10 years ago in the form of the Heathkit CW keyboa rd. It performed tla wlessly. With a large type-ahead buffer, soft sectored memories, and the easiest ope ration possible, it became a good friend until, in a fi t 01poor judgement.

I sold it. The similarit ies are profound. There is no doubt about the family lines: character type-ahead buffer, soft sectored memories, small number of function switches, etc. So I was very happy to discover the new nephew of myoid friend and promptly acquired one. The keyboard can do double duty with your station computer.

This was a design element in engineering the keyer, as the unit comes with a cable to connect your PC keyboa rd to both the computer and the keyer. Using a simple keystroke, you can switch from CW keyboard to your computer logging program, or whatever program you routinely leave running on the shack computer. The 12 VDC can be supplied from a simple plug-in brick, your shack supply, or even a battery. The only apparent control is a large knob that is used to set the sidetone or the keyer speed. The speed is more easily con trolled by keyboard entry, however.

And speaking of speed control, this unit is the only one I know of that lets you use any combination of keying speed and spacing. Using this feature, you can set it up to use Farnsworth keying or any combination that suits your lancy. This green display is the only other thing on the front panel other than the knob. By the way, the keyer is shaped like a long wedge, giving you an attractive sloped lroot and a large rear panel that has all 01the connec to rs necessa ry for hooking up th e kever.

The rear panel has a power supply co n nector, keyboard input and output to connect to your computer , paddle input, outputs for normal keying or grid-block keying. II you are not handy at typing. For the slow typist, you can. You can even link one message to another. You can tell one memory to switdl to another at a certain time in the keying seq uence. The programming only allows one level of nesting, but this shouldn't be much of a problem to the average user.

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The keyer also allows you to send serial numbers for those contests that use that system of excoarqe. Eight K doesn't sound like mudl memory until you try filling it up. It really is a lot of memory for the average ham. The memories are set up using the fuocnon keys on the keyboard. With a typical AT board you have 12 F-keys, and thus 12 separate memories.

I use the last two functions keys for identification purposes. Using Ihe Keyboard This is a very laney memory keyer, but one using the keyboard as an input device, allowing you to send pertect code every time. Using a keyboard makes it very easy to operate CW and gives th ose on th e receiving end perfect copy on their multimode controners. Now why should you 90 with a dedicaled keyboard instead of using a mummcoe unit? The biggest reason is si mplicity. You don't need to have a video display or to know any Amateur Radio Today -June, This also frees up your computer tor use as a dedicated packet OX cluster monitof, logger, etc.

I've been using my keyboard for over a month with no problems whatsoever execcr for IWO things always a catch, eh? One small complaint is that the unit produces a small amount of computer hash, most noticably on the bottom end of 20 meters. The last memory keyer I owned produced so much noise It made 20 meter CW nearly impossible, but this unit has minimum noise in comparison. The other quirk I have encountered is in the choice of keyboards. I bought a new keyboard at the same lime I porcnasec the keyer, and IOf a long time I noticed no problem until I got meter CWoAtlhis point I was ready 10 loss the keyer out the door.

It locked up at times, sent random CW 'ovith no input, sent crazy things from Ihe memories, and was just plain useless. Turns out the problem is not with the keyer but with the keyboard I bought. It is very, very susceptible to RF on 80 meters. I tried two other keyboards and found that myoid Tandy keyboard would take any amount of RF and keep on doing its thing with no problems at all. However, the new keyboard would not work on the computer. Now, on to my other computer, which Is a Magnavox That keyboard would not coerete the keyar.

It would send just four characters, and four only. So much for the AT style keyboard being a random se lection item. You'd better check oul your keyboard with the unit before settling on it as a permanent investment. Other Features Other features of the KK-1 are 19 settings for weighting, auto-repeat delay, adjustable sidetone, and CW practice.

Unlike its little brother, the MM-3, this keyer cen't carry on conversations with you. However, inside the pin connector is a small circuit board with 10 components on it: four transistors. This circuit terms an interface between your computer and the KK 1 keyer. The pin connector goes to your serial port, and the stereo plug goes into the keyer where the paddles normally connect. The software makes it possible to display what you are typing into the 12 memory buffers. These message centers can then be uploaded Into the KK-1 keyer with the proper command. In addition to memory management, you can also change your keyer speed, sioetone.

AEA has certainly been busy making ongoing improvements with their keyer, as they have been changing the firmware faster than most of us change your choice of cliche here.. Jl you wan! One item that would be very useful would be an overlay with Ihese keys marked.

Perhaps that 'Nill be an item tor the entrepreneurs to come up with. Its simplicity of operation and the dependability of AEA products in general make this a keyboard keyer that wi ll fill a niche in the shack. I'm definitely not going to sell this one! Model covers the entire 2 meter band. Model is 01 very naltow bandwidth and would be suitable tor sse. Packet, or Satellite. Model is factory tunable fjom MHz or MHz per customer req uest. All models are powered With VDC and are mounted al the antenna.

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Write or call for fr Brochur. Integrated microsmp patch antenna eliminates the need for an external antenna. Advanced matching techniques secured goodtemperaturestabilsy withlowfrequency pulling. Greatlor long-range testing01radar detectors, calibration 01 radar receiving equipment. Kitchens K4GOK Many hams have a voll automobile battery under the operating to1 ' for a variety of uses.

There is 11 continuing need to know the battery voltage a nd 10 keep it charged. A hasste-rrce mean s of solvi ng these two problems is o ffered by the battery moni tor and ch arger controller described in this article. Th is unit displays the battery voltage on a l u-scg mc nt hal' LED in incre me nts of 0.

When the battery voltage drops to As the battery voltage rises to A discrete LED provides a visual indicatio n of the o n-oil' state of the ch arger. The YAC line control is all solid state. The circuit automatically sw itches to the "Charge" condition upon application of 12 VDC to the unit. A pri nted circuit board layout is provided sec Figu res 2 and 3 for builders who desire to make their own. The c irc u it is sim ple enou gh to be easily built on perf hoard. It is easy to huild and has no tricky circuits or difficult adj ustme nts.

All components arc readily available at most of the mail order supply houses such as Digi Key. The unit is configured 10 occupy minimal shel f sp;. This results in the long, narrow con figuration shown in the photos. The C irc uit The schematic for the b attery monitor and charger controller is shown in Figure I. The ci rcu it se nses the 12Y battery voltage and applies it to the input of the L! June, when the input is olts. Thus, the vari ous LEOs light following the battery voltage as it d ischarges and is recharged. T he ba r LED prov ide s the battery voltage mon itoring funct ion.

The quad gate is wired as a set-reset flip-flop. The "set" input is connected to the " The "re set" input is similarly connected to the " Two gates o f the arc wired 10 control a discrete "charge" indicator LED. Note that the B has inputs and outputs wired Photo A. Completed battery monitor lilt! Photo B. The chip maintains a constant 1. Current thru R2 is the same close as RI. Pin 6 is the top ofan internal precision resistor chain, and pin 4 is the low end. This chain is connected to the internal comparators, and is compared with the voltage at pin 5 for determining which LED to light.

The 10 LED lights when pin 5 voltage is that on pin 6. The 0 LED lights when pin 5 voltage is that on pin 4. The voltage across RI is always t The voltage across R2 is always The som of voltage across Rl and R2 can't exceed the supply voltage, naturally! Minimum voltage at pin 6 wiper at bottom is VR2 6. Maximun voltage at pin 4 is VR2 7. Minimum voltage at pin 4 Is zero ground.

Chip to chip variations cause minor voltage variations 7 R1 6. Battery monitorandcharge controller schematic. PCB[oil pattern viewfrom copperf oil side. Parts placement drawing. The PC B foil panem is shown in Figu re 2. Install all the IC sockets. Sockets are recommended for all of the IC s except the tri ac, which should be soldered in place.

Bolt the triac to the PCB for good therm al conduction. O b serve proper polarity when installing the 2. Note that there are three j umpers on this PCB. One is near pin 7 of the B and is installed from the cornponcru side of the board. Th e other two arc installed on the foil side of the board. The LEOs should be insta lled next.

A socket for the tu- segm eut bar LED is recommended. Solder the socke t d irectly to the edge of the PCB. The resistor lead should be soldered to all the socket pins along one edge, as shown. Study the photo to see how the soc ket and the ohm resistor arc mounted. Solder in place the "charge" LED with lead lengths so that it At this point the PCB should be carefully inspected for solder bridges. Check that all points that should be connected 10 12V are, and that everything that should he con nected 10 ground is.

Verify thai there is no short between 12V and ground.

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Be careful checking thi s circuit be cause pote ntially dangerous voltages will be present before checkout is completed. Remove any voltage o n th e two c aps by tem poraril y shortin g across them at the cap lead s. Connect an ohmme-ter bet ween test point I and ground. Adjust the Ik I'KJt for an oh mme ter read ing of7. Pay careful attention to the proper orien tat ion of the- ICs and ins tall them. O ne segment of the bar LED should also light at this time.

Phoro C. Completed circuit board. Set the power supply at about J2 Vnc. Adjust the 10k po t fo r 4. Set the power supply "oils output. The " Then set the po wer supply to OV and fine-trim the 10k pot so that the " IO. Repeat these adjustments until the " During the above calibration. Use appropriate caut ion. Connect your charger or a II OV low-wattage ligh t bulb to the un it. Connect the unit to the VAC line. Vary the DC power sup ply vo ltage and ve rify tha t th e charge r or lamp come on and go off at Remove me VAC and check for heating o f the componems.

Nothing in this un it should be ho t after operating for several mi nut es. This completes che-ckout o f the unit. It is ready for mounti ng in a small container. A container can he mad e from coppe r-clad PC B ma terial. It is important tha t the PCB he mo unted in the container with the compo nent s downward for prope r reading of the LED di splay. The "charge" LED will be on the right when the board is properly mountcd. Figu re 4 shows ho w the battery monitor and ch Note that the 12V bat tcry connections for the monitor and charger co ntroller sho uld he connected d irectly 10 the battery termi nals as shown.

The sidebar on page 33 contai ns design princ iples and eq uations for read ers who mi ght Conc lusion T he battery monitor and charge r controller has be en in u se a t th is QTH for many months. It serves its Intended purpose well. T he au tomo b ile battery under the operating table slays charged automatically, and battery voltage is obvious at a glance. Othe-rs arc encouraged to bu ild a duplicate unit and e njoy the hassl e-free benefits it provides. FIgure -I. I had previously considered obtaining a licen se but was less than thrilled with the prospect of learning Morse code.

I argued that I was as dumb as a stump whe n it came to me morizatio n but was assured thai learn ing code was not as tough as it see med. I perused the various amateur radio publi cations in search of a CW practice oscillator. Auto matic formauon o f the d illdah length relationship followed with a "space:' The relatio nship bet A paddle set was used in place o f a straight ke y to accommodate this tearure.

Memory-c-hclding one paddle "down" repeats the tone with the appropriate spacing Inserted in betwee n. Holding both padd les "down" alternates between dit and dah with a space inserted between tones. Variable character speed to all ow for ad vancement.. Total project cost of less than SIO. Pa'ou, iIIostr"tive of an? There ore three fignrss in cI. The mal? Many townspeople hare visited Bodawen, and the explanation given by Mr Grace, the exhibitor, is lucid and instructive. The room was crowded with aD appreciative audienoe of men. His remarks were most instructive, dealing very fully with the doings of sailorB, explaining the navigation of a man-of-war, and the various applianoes used in modern warfare.

The excellent pictures produced by means of his splen- did lime-light lantern simplified the lsoturer's remarks, so that the whole of bis audienoe under- stood. The meohanioal slides were very effeotive and illastrated the use ef the electrio search light, and the blowing op of Alexandria by the British fleet. A song was given by Mr Bryan. Mr Felix Watkins had a chosen choir of small dimensions, but of exoellsnt voice, and the programme sub- mitted was thoroughly appreciated to the full ex- tent of its merits.

There were one or two unfor- tunate circumstances oonneoted with the perfor- maneff, which was no fault of the singers. The announcement that one of-the favourite singers was unable to attend was the first oooler, notwithstand- ing that an able substitute had been provided in the person of Mr Fredericks, of Lsicester Cathedral.

His song, The Star of Bethlohem," suited his refined voice, and his expressive mode of interpreting the author a i d his expressive rnode oif? With Mrs and Miss Fos- bery Vale of Clwyd audiences are well acquainted, and their acoompliahed rendering of the pianoforte dllt, entitled Fanst," was listened to with pleasure. Miss Marjorie Eaton, of Soutbporf, eang with exquisite taste and musioal ability, "Tell me, my heart," by Bishop, and she gaired a thoroughly deserved encore.

He also won an enoore,but neither of the excellent performers were permitted to respond, and the whole proceedings suffered in consequence. It was extremely hard on the young lady, whose first appearance in the Vale would have been greatly enhanced by a response. The oonduotGr might have prohibited any response to encore of the cantata, but to interfere between audience and the ssngsters was uncalled for.

The second portion of the programme oousisted of Ganl's cantata 11 Joan of Aro. AIr S. Ro- berts presided "t the piano, and proved an eifioiont aooompanist. The singing of the choir, although possessing first-rate voioes, Iaoked spirit and free. Some of the parts were well sustained, but there was a want of enthusiasm and gusto in the whole rjndering. The part-songs aDd daets were laboured and most unsympathetic, and failed to arouse the audienoe in the least. This was partially dne to the damper which bad been thrown upon the proceedings at the oommenoement, and not so much the fault of the singers.

Mr Watkins conduotod with his usual ability, but the ohoir sesraed raw and work un. The couductor has excellent material at his disposal and will, no doubt, biing tbe perform- ances usually!

The singing of the National Anthem, the solo of which was rendered by Miss Eton, oonoluded the proceedings at Swayue, the hou. The exhibition, whioh mast oast a great deal of care aud trouble to the shopkeepers, had many interesting features and the spectators lingered a long while examining the ehoioe articles exhibited tor their pleasure. The display on the whole was not so elt borate as in former years, and several of the tradesmen appeared to take no interest in the anoal event, and their shops wore their usual dowdy aspect.

It is pleas. There were more exhibits, but the shows on tho whole were not so effective or extensive as on previous occasions. The drap'ry establishments, of wbich the town is proud to b iast, were a pleasing feature of the show. Alderman T. The fancy window was raally au exposition of the wiudow-dresset'i art, showing to great advantage a large and varied stock of ladies ,I articles of attire and dregs fabrics.

The other window was effectively arranged with an assortment of geritlemwn's outfit. The next window, as regards size, was Mr R. The details of the windows wera flacking in finish, but the geods were seasonable audohoicely assorted. The"fancy' wiudow was the better display, Mr T. Hughes's windows were not nearly up to the usual standard of exoellenoe, althout' the goods displayed were valuable and seasonable. Mr Knowltes maintained the excellent character of his dressing, and the windows were admued. Jones' windows exhibited a very pretty wintsr- sc"ne with foxes, Ac.

There was an effective display of ribbons and other fancy drapery. London House was excoilantly drassed, the windows, which are difficult oues to make an effective display were very rnnch admiredithey were etooked with handsome goods well arranged. The crocere' were the delight of the spectators. Mr Clwyd Pierce's establishment wore its usual bright and business- like appearance. Messrs Ashford Brothers, owing to boreavement in family, were ill disposed to make a special display. The windows were filled as usna! Messrs E. Jones, and Messrs Williams and Co. Jones and Mr J.

Tones made pretcv windows of grocery. The sboe depots were to tbe fore in the show. Dick's shop was brilliant with gas light, and the goods were displayed with much effect. Messrs Stead and Co. Mr Hughes, near the Post Office, made an exhibition of pretty ball n'. Mr Holgate did well for a beginner. Jon J both for artistio arrangement snd quantity taking the palm. He had au r. Mr James Gresu made a fine show of ooppur and brass goods together w:th a large of lamps. Ths butcliers were well represented. Mrs Ellis had a famous display of prime beef and mutton.

Mr Davrexhibited a heavy stock, including geese, etc. Mr Humphreys Jones pn-Bsntwd Piime fat beasts and mutton for inspection. Mr MardeU tthowed a beautiful variety of terns, palms, and other green-honse products, Mrs Jared Jones made a tempting ai. The stationers were repre- seuted by Mrs Nott who exhibitnd a large stosk of Christmas presents, etc. Mr Bithall. Th M wa i a pleasing display at the Misses Powell's fancy depositary. Mr Ballemy showed musical instruments of great variety, and the window was much admired.

The publicans did not make a show tiis year, whioh is just The people ip the markst made the beat of" b. The fruit stalls were pleasing, Mr Williams, of Brookhonse making a nice display of gardun produoe. The botchers did their bint and their efforts were appre- oiatad. Tho market was free this year, and unless the Corporation do something to the buildings to make them more obartal with gas and paint, the Connoil meetings can soon be be? The meeting was skilfully ooudaoted by Me G. Jones, C. M, Voelgron, who delivered an excellent address on the importance of children attending school regularly.

An address was delivered by the rector of the parish, tbii Rev. Rowlands, R. During the meeting the following ladies and gentlemen took part in tbe mnsical performancesTbe Misses Angarstein. MeBsrs H. Hughes and W. Jones, Glynyweddw, amnsed the audience with readings, the former in Welsh and the latter in English.

The dialogne "Dividing the cake. The aooom. Davies, Voelgron Sohools, who reflected much ceedit on himself. The poce,? It was a real sucoess, and the results very gratifying to the promoters. After the usual vote of tbanka to those who had taken part, thepntertainmant was brought to a close by the singing of the National Anthem. Wiley who assisted to put out the fire. Henderson, solicitor, a commissioner to admiuister oaths in the Supreme Courts of Judi- cature in England.

A sub-oommittee was appointed to see to the decorating and heatiug of the Pavilion, and another to push the sale of tickets. For full particulate see advertisement. Bevau,obairman of the Board,-who alluded to the faithful and efficient servioss of Miss Hughes during her counaotjon with the sohocl. Farrington, Ernest Winter, and others have promised to assist. Catlin in the chair, There was a considerable majority againBt holding the sittings in the Masonio Hall instead of the schoolroom, the former place being greatly preferred by the Government in power.

TheHouso accepted the Queen's Speeob without a division. Tudsbury Turner, B. Mr Woodall, Marl Hall, presided. Mr Turner was formerly of the Japanese Imperial Civil Service, and therefore was enabled to make bis subjaot very interesting, aud the enjoyment of the audience was greatly enhanced by limelight lantern illustiations, under the able management of Mr 1. Slater, photographer, and Mr A, H. The proceedings closed with the usual votes of thanks.

Wilkius leotnred on behalf of the London M. He deaoribed tbe work which the society is doing in India, especially in M idra3. Numerous excellent pictures of the places described were flashed upon a large screen by Mr I Hughes, Rochester House, who, behalf of the society, gave his services free. The chair wastak-m by Mr M. Wilson, of Eithinog, who, after the hymn "From Greenland's icy mountains," had been sung, introduced the lecturer. A very inter- esting account of missionary labour in India was given whioh excited much interest, and which, we trust, expressed itself in increased generosity when the collection was taken at the close, We under- stand that Miss Alice Nuttall, of Daisy Bank, is the lady who presides over the financial interests of tbe society in this locality, aud that she will be very glad to reoeive donations from any interested in foreign mission work towards the sooietj'a funds.

Price, G. Though unknown, personally, in the North, he is, by name, known everywhere as the successful com- petitor ont of twenty in anthemau composition at the London Na ional Eisteddfod and many of our countrymen will remember that one of his pieces was, jointly with one of Isalaw'a, the test-piece at the Bangor National Eisteddfod last September and the cloief prize test-piece her,, is another of his works, which was composed especially for the Calvinistic Festival held at Merthyr. The North Walians will be glad to get a glimpse of this popular composer. We wish the Eisieddfod and its plumoterB evary success.

On Wednesday, at St. George's Hall, the lady members of the above society gava a grand concert, which was well-atteuded and successful. Consider- able curiosity was evinced to see whac the ladies could do with merely the assistance of Mr Shrnbsole-Turner, conductor, and Mr W. Henderson, accompanist. We feel bound to admit that tlio ladies scored remarkably well their appearance on the stage left nothing to be desired, and they sang on the whole admirably. The bon. Richards, from whom we understand that ao attractive musical service will be given at Trinity Churoh on Christmas Day.

The first part of the programme on. Wednesday consisted of Smart's cantnta, King Kene's Daughter," a rather diffi- cnlt work, of which the following is the ar? Strioken with blindness when but a vear old, she has been reared with all knowledge of the fa-ulty of sight withheld from her.

A ltsch or magician has promised to restore her sight by means of an amulet he has given her on condition that she is first informed of the missing sense; bat the king has refused permission. Iolant'o6's betrothed, t'wanderinti as a troubadour, lights npon her abode in a valley of Vaucluse. Without knowing her-for a territorial fend has kept their livea apart-tbn trouhadour knight is en- thralled by her beautv.

This story is freely adapted from Henrik Hortz' drama. Tho characters were t. In No's. Th- isdieq bale dent? Of the 'sts Mia8 ROBe good and tuneful. Of BOt br auy means Jephoott bv. Miss Jephcot reoit. At the oloe of the oantata the app? Chantry; violin? Bolero, M,??

The ladies who bad charge of the a? Frost in the air as well M M'? M geago]3 By no trades- man is this made more apparent than by,'our leading purveyor-Mr John Jonas Centra gildings whose reputation for energy far eXMC? Mr John JonesKoea in for enter- prise, benoe his immeoee bnoine,,S. Unfortunately this prize beast WRS suddenly taken ill? M'a manager, that the heifer was MDed on the? Mor Axe. Bat Mr Jones was not the man to "knock under" in such a difficulty.

He proved quite equal to tbe occasion by purchasing from the Queen's farm three Devou t". Bj tnrehased seven Webb etsers M? My ''? The preference B'? TP' earhos An,! Valley, three rine? Ruthin; one auponor?? Asaph; one grand Webh steer and one heifer fed by the purveyor ,t Diuarth Farm. M Welsh mountain and! Bodoryn Mr W. Mr Ed. Jones, Gars; and the home farm? One hundred of tb.. Morris, Rhud?

Phe total stoolt include 20 cattle, eheep. Mr Jones ia receivins orders for meat from all put of the kingdom. Other local purveyors also oome out well, no. Ilavies, Mr W. Smith, and others -how a great, stock of turk Aye. Davies and Mr R. Roberts lire prominent in the fish trade. The latter can claim the title of "royal fishmonger,"as ho constantly receives orders to Bend fish to her Majesty of Roumania. It is almoat too early to enlarge upon the general seasonable appearanee of the shops, as they have scaroely been rigged lip" in all their festive elory.

Bnt the grocers nre getting on with their decorations, and doing their level best to tempt the public in the direction of plum pudding and other epicurean necessities. Mr George W. Mebley, in Gloddaeth-street, exhibits a tempting display. Mr Moblev is a comparatively young tradesman, but he has it in him. Mr Mobley has just osrried ont a great improvement in his shop, and will soon have the" oaah railway.

To meet this desire the wine merchants and restaurants afford every facility. Mrs Hunter-Johnson of the London Restaurant—or we should say her young lady assistants—make a point of pretty window decorations at the festive Bflnson. Mr Allan Sumner, of tho Groswnor, is equally praiseworthy, as tha Grosvenor is quite un to date in every respect. Captain Lester and Mr Richard Owen show a giand stick of excellent wines and spirits. The stationers and fancy bazaars are fqnal to a demands. Bnnney's in the toy and card depart- ment, is Mr exceHtnc' for quantity allied to quality. Every conceivable article suitable for a present at a re?

Me priM may be h? Bunney to know how it is Brothers are good it, the same departments, They, n? M and? Woodley, Mr B. Woodc,,k -ni Mr a E.